*) The size of the orbitals depends on the effective nuclear charge.
The relative size of orbitals with different principal quantum numbers is not depicted true to scale, but was adapted to fit the display size.
Due to numerical inaccuracies, Jmol iso-contour surfaces and nodal planes may display some "holes", which are not of physical relevance.
Note: The f-orbitals are special in as much as two different sets of functions are commonly in use, the general and the cubic set. The latter
cubic set may be appropriate for describing atoms in an environment of cubic symmetry. Both sets have three orbitals in common
(nf_{z3}, nf_{xyz}, and nf_{z(x2-y2)}
with n = 4 (4f), 5 (5f), ...). Depicted here is the general set only.
Additional information on hydrogenic atomic orbitals can be obtained from the "Tutorials" section of this web site.
*) Number of hybrid orbitals resulting from the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO): the number of atomic orbitals in use must equal the number of hybrid orbitals obtained.
The size of the orbitals depends on the effective nuclear charge. The relative size of orbitals with different principal quantum numbers is not depicted true to scale, but was adapted to fit the display size.
All hybrid orbitals were derived from the cartesian wave functions Ψ of the constituent hydrogenic atomic orbitals (see above), iso-contour surfaces are given at the 90% probability level of the electron density Ψ^{2}.
Please note, that for the exploded view of all hybrid orbitals of a given set, the orbitals have been moved away from the center towards the outside to facilitate visualization (the orange spheres represent the original location of the nucleus).
Due to numerical inaccuracies, iso-contour surfaces and nodal planes may display some "holes" or "bumps", which are not of physical relevance.
Additional information on hybrid orbitals can be obtained from the "Tutorials" section of this web site.
*) Number of hybrid orbitals resulting from the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO): the number of atomic orbitals in use must equal the number of hybrid orbitals obtained.
The size of the orbitals depends on the effective nuclear charge. The relative size of orbitals with different principal quantum numbers is not depicted true to scale, but was adapted to fit the display size.
All hybrid orbitals were derived from the cartesian wave functions Ψ of the constituent hydrogenic atomic orbitals (see above), iso-contour surfaces are given at the 90% probability level of the electron density Ψ^{2}.
Please note, that for the exploded view of all hybrid orbitals of a given set, the orbitals have been moved away from the center towards the outside to facilitate visualization (the orange spheres represent the original location of the nucleus).
Due to numerical inaccuracies, iso-contour surfaces and nodal planes may display some "holes" or "bumps", which are not of physical relevance.
Additional information on hybrid orbitals can be obtained from the "Tutorials" section of this web site.